The following article was written by SoulSearcher from UK-Muscle
Background to Synephrine
Following the ban of the open distribution of Ephedrine due to health reasons, but also as it is an ingredient in the manufacture of Methamphetamine (Crystal Meth). This has resulted in a total ban in USA, and pharmacy only distribution in UK. The hunt was then on for an alternative that could be used by the supplementation companies in fat loss products, and allow free distribution. This is where Synephrine comes in. Synephrine is a naturally occurring PhenylEthylAmine derived primarily from the immature fruit of Citrus aurantium, a relatively small citrus tree, of which several of its more common names include Bitter Orange, Sour Orange, and Zhi shi. Synephrine accounts for about 0.2% by weight of each fruit. It is also found in certain other citrus fruits in lower concentrations, these include satsumas and mandarin. The juices of these fruits contain on average about 100mg per litre of juice.
The claims around synephrine seem to be wide ranging, and as with all things in science and pseudo science there is always a claim and then a counter-claim. However there is also a body of evidence that points to the fact that Synephrine used on its own may not live up to the claims made for it, however when used in conjunction with Naringin and Hesperidin does have a measurable metabolic impact. Naringin is found naturally in grapefruit and Hespiridin is present in most citrus fruits including grapefruit. Hespiridin is also a very powerful anti-oxidant, and has shown anti-cancer properties when used on human cancer cell cultures. The ideal ratio of the three seems to be 1:12:2 (S:N:H), but more on this later.
How Does It Work – A Little Bit of Science
Synephrine is an alpha antagonist, specifically Alpha-1 receptors, and like many of the other substances I have covered in this series works by indirect stimulation of the adrenergic receptor system, by increasing the activity of noradrenaline at the post-synaptic alpha-1 and to a lesser extent also the beta-3 receptors. This increases the metabolism of fats from adipose tissue, and also may prevent new fat being deposited. The actions of Synephrine on its own however are NOT as great as the previous substances I have posted on (see links above).
Synephrine will downregulate the receptors in your cells, therefore like all of this type of stimulant will need to be cycled. 4 weeks on and 4 weeks off will give maximum benefits, although running for 6 weeks should also be viable. It is important to give yourself time off from any of these supplements to allow your receptors chance to get back to normal. There is a diminishing return on these stimulants, and running them more than this will give no additional benefits, as your body will fail to react to them, and you may well cause more lasting damage to yourself.
Also bear in mind that if you take a substance like Jack3D, HemoRage or Warrior Rage then these contain 1,3 DiMethylAmylAmine which is also acts on your alpha receptors. If you then add in a fat loss supplement as well, not only are you shortening the time when they BOTH remain effective, but you are also opening yourself up to a higher risk of teh side effects of these types of products.
Synephrine is widely available as an addition to a large number of fat-burning products right now, it is often labelled as Bitter Orange extract or Citrus Aurantium, all of these are Synephrine, or at least want you to think they are.
Like ECA, Yohimbine and 1,3 DMAA, Synephrine increases neurological activity and anxiety and so should be avoided by people with any anxiety issues, any history of mental problems or family history of mental problems. Also given that Synephrine effectively raises the levels of norepinephrine then taking it too late at night can cause insomnia, although less extreme than ECA or 1,3 DMAA.
Additionally as with all central nervous stimulants, Synephrine should NOT be taken by those people how have any history of, but not limited to, strokes, high blood pressure, heart, liver, kidney, or thyroid disease, diabetes or anemia, a family history of these or other medical conditions, or if taking any prescription, OTC, and/or other herbal medications. Please consult with a qualified medical practitioner if in doubt.
Products and Suppliers for Synephrine
There is a very long list of products containing Synephrine, but the following are either products that I have used personally, or have on recommendation from people or companies whose opinion I trust. Again feel free to post further Synephrine based products in this thread that you have experience with – the more the merrier.
I would recommend taking all the supplements here with a glass of grapefruit juice to get the Naringin and Hespiridin in, as this will lift the effectiveness of this product.
Grenade – “Thermo Detonator”
- Green Tea: 500mg
- Bitter Orange Peel: 420mg
- Caffeine: 225mg
- Cayenne: 200mg
- Phenylalanine: 25mg – purported anti-depressant properties, an essential amino acid, present in the artificial sweetener Aspartame.
- Green Coffee: 10mg
- Fat Catabolizor & -3 Potentiator 317mg
- Caffeine Anhydrous
- MTTA (Methyl Tetradecylthioacetic Acid) – has been shown to reduce blood lipids in rats
- Yerba Mate Extract – contains caffeine, theobromine and theophilline – all central nervous system stimulants
- Lipolytic Trigger – no idea on this one
- 3′-5′-CAMP (3′-5′-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate) this plays a part in the regulation of lipid metabolism.
Synephrine is probably more widely available and easier to come by than 1,3 DMAA, ECA, Yohimbine and Rauwolscine. However it’s legal status is currently under review by the FDA in USA, as they view it as close enough to Ephedrine to warrant further look, even though there is no path from Synephrine to MethAmphetamine – which is probably the real reason Ephedrine was banned over there.